PROPOSITION: 12 USA Leaders for SDGs, Peace and Prosperity!
Sustainable Development Goals and the Creation of 2,500,000 Jobs in the Western Hemisphere !
John Adams (October 30 [O.S. October 19] 1735 – July 4, 1826) was an American patriot who served as the second President of the United States (1797–1801) and the first Vice President (1789–97). He was a lawyer, diplomat, statesman, political theorist, and, as a Founding Father, a leader of the movement for American independence. Adams was the father of John Quincy Adams, the sixth President of the United States. He died on the fiftieth anniversary of the adoption of the Declaration of Independence, and the same day as Jefferson. François-Dominique Toussaint Louverture: 20 May 1743 – 7 April 1803), also known as Toussaint L'Ouverture or Toussaint Bréda, was the best-known leader of the Haitian Revolution. In 1802 he was forced to resign by forces sent by Napoleon Bonaparte to restore French authority in the former colony. He was deported to France, where he died in 1803. The Haitian Revolution continued under his lieutenant, Jean-Jacques Dessalines, who declared independence on January 1, 1804.
Alexandre Sabès Pétion: (French pronunciation: April 2, 1770 – March 29, 1818) was the first President of the Republic of Haiti from 1807 until his death in 1818. He is one of Haiti's founding fathers, together with Toussaint Louverture, Jean-Jacques Dessalines and his rival Henri Christophe. Pétion was born "Anne Alexandre Sabès" in Port-au-Prince to Pascal Sabès, a wealthy French father and Ursula, a free mulatto woman, which made him a quadroon (a quarter African ancestry). Simón José Antonio de la Santísima Trinidad Bolívar y Palacios: (24 July 1783 – 17 December 1830), known as El Libertador, was a Venezuelan military and political leader who played a leading role in the establishment of Venezuela, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Panama as sovereign states, independent of Spanish rule.
Guillaume Fabre Nicolas Geffrard (September 19, 1806 – December 31, 1878) was a mulatto general in the Haitian army and President of Haiti from 1859 until his deposition in 1867. After collaborating in a coup to remove Faustin Soulouque from power in order to return Haiti back to the social and political control of the colored elite, Geffrard was made president in 1859. Abraham Lincoln: (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was an American politician and lawyer who served as the 16th President of the United States from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. Lincoln led the United States through its Civil War—its bloodiest war and perhaps its greatest moral, constitutional, and political crisis. In doing so, he preserved the Union, abolished slavery, strengthened the federal government, and modernized the economy.
Donald John Trump: (born June 14, 1946) is an American businessman, television personality, politician, and the 45th President of the United States.He was born in Jamaica, Queens, New York City where he lived until enrolling at age 13 in the New York Military Academy. Trump received an economics degree from the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania in 1968. In 1971, he took charge of his family's real estate and construction firm, Elizabeth Trump & Son, which was later renamed The Trump Organization. Michael Richard "Mike" Pence: (born June 7, 1959) is an American politician and lawyer and the 48th Vice President of the United States. He previously served as the 50th Governor of Indiana from 2013 to 2017.Born and raised in Columbus, Indiana, Pence graduated from Hanover College and earned a law degree from the Indiana University Robert H. McKinney School of Law before entering private practice.
John Adams -
Proclamation of June 26, 1799
Regarding Commerce with St. Domingo
PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.
Whereas by an act of the Congress of the United States passed the 9th day of February last, entitled "An act further to suspend the commercial intercourse between the United States and France and the dependencies thereof," it is provided that at any time after the passing of this act it shall be lawful for the President of the United States, if he shall deem it expedient and consistent with the interests of the United States, by his order to remit and discontinue for the time being the restraints and prohibitions by the said act imposed, either with respect to the French Republic or to any island, port, or place belonging to the said Republic with which a commercial intercourse may safely be renewed, and also to revoke such order whenever, in his opinion, the interest of the United States shall require; and he is authorized to make proclamation thereof accordingly; and
Whereas the arrangements which have been made at St. Domingo for the safety of the commerce of the United States and for the admission of American vessels into certain ports of that island do, in my opinion, render it expedient and for the interest of the United States to renew a commercial intercourse with such ports:
Therefore I, John Adams, President of the United States, by virtue of the powers vested in me by the above-recited act, do hereby remit and discontinue the restraints and prohibitions therein contained within the limits and under the regulations here following, to wit:
1. It shall be lawful for vessels which have departed or may depart from the United States to enter the ports of Cape Francois and Port Republicain, formerly called Port-au-Prince, in the said island of St. Domingo, on and after the 1st day of August next.
2. No vessel shall be cleared for any other port in St. Domingo than Cape Francois and Port Republicain.
3 It shall be lawful for vessels which shall enter the said ports of Cape Francois and Port Republicain after the gist day of July next to depart from thence to any other port in said island between Monte Christi on the north and Petit Goave on the west; provided it be done with the consent of the Government of St. Domingo and pursuant to certificates or passports expressing such consent, signed by the consul-general of the United States or consul residing at the port of departure.
4. All vessels sailing in contravention of these regulations will be out of the protection of the United States and be, moreover, liable to capture, seizure, and confiscation.
Given under my hand and the seal of the United States, at Philadelphia the 26th day of June, A. D. 1799, and of the Independence of the said States the twenty-third.
By the President:
Secretary of State.
John Adams -
Proclamation of May 9, 1800
Regarding Remission of Prohibitions on Certain Ports
MAY 9, 1800.
Whereas by an act of Congress of the United States passed the 27th day of February last, entitled "An act further to suspend the commercial intercourse between the United States and France and the dependencies thereof," it is enacted that at any time after the passing of the said act it shall be lawful for the President of the United States, by his order, to remit and discontinue for the time being, whenever he shall deem it expedient and for the interest of the United States, all or any of the restraints and prohibitions imposed by the said act in respect to the territories of the French Republic, or to any island, port, or place belonging to the said Republic with which, in his opinion, a commercial intercourse may be safely renewed, and to make proclamation thereof accordingly; and it is also thereby further enacted that the whole of the island of Hispaniola shall, for the purposes of the said act, be considered as a dependence of the French Republic; and
Whereas the circumstances of certain ports and places of the said island not comprised in the proclamation of the 26th day of June, 1799, are such that I deem it expedient and for the interest of the United States to remit and discontinue the restraints and prohibitions imposed by the said act in respect to those ports and places in order that a commercial intercourse with the same may be renewed:
Therefore I, John Adams, President of the United States, by virtue of the powers vested in me as aforesaid, do hereby remit and discontinue the restraints and prohibitions imposed by the act aforesaid in respect to all the ports and places in the said island of Hispaniola from Monte Christi on the north, round by the eastern end thereof as far as the port of Jacmel on the south, inclusively. And it shall henceforth be lawful for vessels of the United States to enter and trade at any of the said ports and places, provided it be done with the consent of the Government of St. Domingo. And for this purpose it is hereby required that such vessels first enter the port of Cape Francois or Port Republicain, in the said island, and there obtain the passports of the said Government, which shall also be signed by the consul-general or consul of the United States residing at Cape Francois or Port Republicain, permitting such vessel to go thence to the other ports and places of the said island hereinbefore mentioned and described. Of all which the collectors of the customs and all other officers and citizens of the United States are to take due notice and govern themselves.
In testimony, etc.
The Louisiana Purchase
(French: Vente de la Louisiane "Sale of Louisiana")
(828,000 square miles = 2.14 million km²)
30th of April 1803.
The Louisiana Purchase (French: Vente de la Louisiane
"Sale of Louisiana") was the acquisition of the Louisiana territory
(828,000 square miles = 2.14 million km²) by the United States from France in 1803.
The U.S. paid fifty million francs ($11,250,000 USD) and a cancellation of debts worth
eighteen million francs ($3,750,000 USD) for a total of sixty-eight million francs ($15,000,000 USD,
or around a quarter of a billion in 2016 dollars). The Louisiana territory included
land from fifteen present U.S. states and two Canadian provinces. The territory
contained land that forms Arkansas, Missouri, Iowa, Oklahoma, Kansas, and Nebraska;
the portion of Minnesota west of the Mississippi River; a large portion of North Dakota;
a large portion of South Dakota; the northeastern section of New Mexico;
the northern portion of Texas; the area of Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado east of the Continental Divide;
Louisiana west of the Mississippi River (plus New Orleans); and small portions of land within
the present Canadian provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. Its non-native population was around 60,000 inhabitants,
of whom half were African slaves. The Kingdom of France controlled the Louisiana territory from 1699 until it was ceded
to Spain in 1762. Napoleon in 1800, hoping to re-establish an empire in North America, regained ownership of Louisiana.
However, France's failure to put down the revolt in Saint-Domingue, coupled with the prospect of renewed warfare with
the United Kingdom, prompted Napoleon to sell Louisiana to the United States. The Americans originally sought
to purchase only the port city of New Orleans and its adjacent coastal lands, but quickly accepted the bargain.
The Louisiana Purchase occurred during the term of the third President of the United States, Thomas Jefferson.
Before the purchase was finalized, the decision faced Federalist Party opposition; they argued that it was
unconstitutional to acquire any territory. Jefferson agreed that the U.S. Constitution did not contain explicit
provisions for acquiring territory, but he asserted that his constitutional power to negotiate treaties was sufficient.
José Antonio de la Santísima Trinidad Bolívar y Palacios
(July 24, 1783 Caracas, Venezuela – December 17, 1830 Santa
Marta, Colombia) South American liberator. Bolívar traveled
on December 24, 1815 to Haiti, arriving in the coastal town
of Les Cayes on his way from Jamaica where he was expelled. Simón Bolívar received help
from the Haitian government under Alexandre Pétion for his
military campaigns. Pétion secretly supplied Bolívar with
4,000 muskets, 15,000 pounds of powder, flints, lead and a
printing press and asked in return for South America’s
slaves to be freed. (Heinl p. 158 – See also footnote 430 of
The Struggle for the Recognition of Haiti…). Bolívar left Haiti on April
10, 1816 for Venezuela, but returned in mid-September of
that year to Les Cayes after lost battles in South America.
Resupplied by Pétion he sailed again from Haiti on December
28, 1816, this time to successfully conclude his struggle
for South American liberation from colonialism. The Haitian
help was given because he promised to free slaves, Bolívar
landed in Venezuela and captured Angostura Despite the crucial logistical
support from Haiti, Bolívar never recognized the
independence of the former French colony Saint-Domingue. One of Bolívar’s predecessors
in the liberation struggle from colonialism in Spanish ruled
South America, Francisco de Miranda, created the first
Venezuelan flag near Jacmel in the South of Haiti. Anchored
in the Bay of Jacmel, he first raised the flag on March 12,
1806 on the Corvette Leander. This day is celebrated is
still celebrated as Venezuelan Flag Day. Importance of Bolivar to Latin
America: Simón Bolívar (July 24, 1783 –
December 17, 1830), was one of the most important leaders of
Spanish America’s successful struggle for independence from
Spain, along with Argentinian general José de San Martín.
Liberator Simon Bolivar
Simón José Antonio de la Santísima Trinidad Bolívar y Palacios (July 24, 1783 Caracas, Venezuela – December 17, 1830 Santa Marta, Colombia) South American liberator. Bolívar traveled on December 24, 1815 to Haiti, arriving in the coastal town of Les Cayes on his way from Jamaica where he was expelled.
Simón Bolívar received help from the Haitian government under Alexandre Pétion for his military campaigns. Pétion secretly supplied Bolívar with 4,000 muskets, 15,000 pounds of powder, flints, lead and a printing press and asked in return for South America’s slaves to be freed. (Heinl p. 158 – See also footnote 430 of The Struggle for the Recognition of Haiti…).
Bolívar left Haiti on April 10, 1816 for Venezuela, but returned in mid-September of that year to Les Cayes after lost battles in South America. Resupplied by Pétion he sailed again from Haiti on December 28, 1816, this time to successfully conclude his struggle for South American liberation from colonialism. The Haitian help was given because he promised to free slaves, Bolívar landed in Venezuela and captured Angostura
Despite the crucial logistical support from Haiti, Bolívar never recognized the independence of the former French colony Saint-Domingue.
One of Bolívar’s predecessors in the liberation struggle from colonialism in Spanish ruled South America, Francisco de Miranda, created the first Venezuelan flag near Jacmel in the South of Haiti. Anchored in the Bay of Jacmel, he first raised the flag on March 12, 1806 on the Corvette Leander. This day is celebrated is still celebrated as Venezuelan Flag Day.
Importance of Bolivar to Latin America:
Simón Bolívar (July 24, 1783 – December 17, 1830), was one of the most important leaders of Spanish America’s successful struggle for independence from Spain, along with Argentinian general José de San Martín.After the triumph over the Spanish monarchy, Bolívar participated in the foundation of Gran Colombia, a nation formed from the liberated Spanish colonies. Bolívar became President of Gran Colombia from 1821 to 1830, President of Peru from 1824 to 1826 and President of Bolivia from 1825 to 1826. His legacy contributed decisively to the independence of present-day Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Panamá, Perú and Venezuela.
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On 25 September 2015, the 194 countries of the UN General Assembly adopted the 2030 Development Agenda titled Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Following the adoption, UN agencies under the umbrella of the United Nations Development Group, decided to support an independent campaign to help communicate the agreed Sustainable Development Goals to a wider constituency. Known as Project Everyone, the independent campaign introduced the term Global Goals and was supported by corporate institutions and other International Organizations. Because this decision was made without the approval of the member states, it met resistance. In addition, several sections of civil society and governments felt the UNDG ignored "sustainability," even though it was the most important aspect of the agreement. That the term "Global Goals" also refers to several other processes not related to the United Nations was another concern. The Official Agenda for Sustainable Development adopted on 25 September 2015 has 92 paragraphs. Paragraph 51 outlines the 17 Sustainable Development Goals and the associated 169 targets. The 17 SDGs, as depicted in this chart, are: 1. No Poverty - End poverty in all its forms everywhere 2. Zero Hunger - End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture 3. Good Health and Well-being - Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages 4. Quality Education - Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all 5. Gender Equality - Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls 6. Clean Water and Sanitation - Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all 7. Affordable and Clean Energy - Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all 8. Decent Work and Economic Growth - Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all 9. Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure - Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation 10. Reduced Inequalities - Reduce income inequality within and among countries 11. Sustainable Cities and Communities - Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable 12. Responsible Consumption and Production - Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns 13. Climate Action - Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts by regulating emissions and promoting developments in renewable energy 14. Life Below Water - Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development 15. Life on Land - Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss 16. Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions - Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels 17. Partnerships for the Goals - Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development As of August 2015, there were 169 proposed targets for these goals and 304 proposed indicators to show compliance.
"Fourscore and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation or any nation so conceived and so dedicated can long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field as a final resting-place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate, we cannot consecrate, we cannot hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead who struggled here have consecrated it far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living rather to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us--that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion--that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain, that this nation under God shall have a new birth of freedom, and that government of the people, by the people, for the people shall not perish from the earth."
And so, my fellow Americans, ask not what your country can do for you - - ask what you can do for your country.
Forgive your enemies, but never forget their names.
Change is the law of life. And those who look only to the past or present are certain to miss the future.
My job is not to represent the world. My job is to represent the United States of America. "But we know that America is better off when there is less conflict, not more. We must learn from the mistakes of the past. We have seen the war and the destruction that have ravaged and raged throughout the world."
Free Soil candidates ran on a platform that declared: "...we inscribe on our banner, 'Free Soil, Free Speech, Free Labor and Free Men,' and under it we will fight on and fight ever, until a triumphant victory shall reward our exertions." The party also called for a tariff for revenue only (i.e. import taxes sufficient to meet federal government expenses without creating protectionist trade barriers), and for a homestead act. The Free Soil Party's main support came from areas of Ohio, upstate New York and western Massachusetts, although other northern states also had representatives. The party contended that slavery undermined the dignity of labor and inhibited social mobility, and was therefore fundamentally undemocratic. Viewing slavery as an economically inefficient, obsolete institution, Free Soilers believed that slavery should be contained, and that if contained it would ultimately disappear.
In 1848 the New York State Democratic convention did not endorse the Wilmot Proviso, an act that would have banned slavery in any territory conquered by the United States in the Mexican War. Almost half the members, known as "Barnburners", walked out after he national platform. Lewis Cass, the Democratic Party's 1848 presidential nominee, supported popular sovereignty (local control) for determining the status of slavery in the U.S. territories. This stance repulsed the New York State Democrats and encouraged them to join with anti-slavery Conscience Whigs and the majority of the Liberty Party to form the Free Soil Party, which was formalized in the summer of 1848 at conventions in Utica and Buffalo. The Free Soilers nominated former Democratic President Martin Van Buren for president, along with Charles Francis Adams for vice president, at Lafayette Square in Buffalo, then known as Court House Park. The main party leaders were Salmon P. Chase of Ohio and John P. Hale of New Hampshire. The Free Soil candidates won 10% of the popular vote in 1848 but no electoral votes, in part because the nomination of Van Buren discouraged many anti-slavery Whigs from supporting them.
The party distanced itself from abolitionism and avoided the moral problems implicit in slavery. Members emphasized instead the threat slavery would pose to free white labor and northern businessmen in the new western territories. Although abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison derided the party philosophy as "white manism," the approach appealed to many moderate opponents of slavery. The 1848 platform pledged to promote limited internal improvements, work for a homestead law, work towards paying off the public debt, and introduce a moderate tariff for revenue only. The Compromise of 1850 temporarily neutralized the issue of slavery and undercut the party's no-compromise position. Most Barnburners returned to the Democratic Party while most of the Conscience Whigs returned to the Whig Party. This resulted in the Free Soil Party becoming dominated by ardent anti-slavery leaders. The party ran John P. Hale in the 1852 presidential election, but its share of the popular vote shrank to less than 5%. However two years later, after enormous outrage over the Kansas–Nebraska Act of 1854, the remains of the Free Soil Party helped form the Republican Party
The party's founding members chose the name "Republican Party" in the mid-1850s as homage to the values of republicanism promoted by Thomas Jefferson's Republican party. The idea for the name came from an editorial by the party's leading publicist, Horace Greeley, who called for, "some simple name like 'Republican' [that] would more fitly designate those who had united to restore the Union to its true mission of champion and promulgator of Liberty rather than propagandist of slavery". The name reflects the 1776 republican values of civic virtue and opposition to aristocracy and corruption. It is important to note that "republican" has a variety of meanings around the world, and the U.S. Republican Party has evolved such that the meanings no longer always align. The term "Grand Old Party" is a traditional nickname for the Republican Party, and the abbreviation "GOP" is a commonly used designation. The term originated in 1875 in the Congressional Record, referring to the party associated with the successful military defense of the Union as "this gallant old party"; the following year in an article in the Cincinnati Commercial, the term was modified to "grand old party". The first use of the abbreviation is dated 1884. The traditional mascot of the party is the elephant. A political cartoon by Thomas Nast, published in Harper's Weekly on November 7, 1874, is considered the first important use of the symbol. In the early 20th century, the usual symbol of the Republican Party in Midwestern states such as Indiana and Ohio was the bald eagle, as opposed to the Democratic rooster.
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